Vet News

February 27, 2020

Maintenance Fluids

Previously, we discussed the components of a fluid therapy plan and talked about hydration deficits. This week I want to touch on maintenance fluids. Maintenance rates are typically calculated using the following formulae: ml/day = 80 × bodyweight (kg)0.75 (cats) ml/day = 132 ×bodyweight (kg)0.75 (dogs) or ml/day = 30 × bodyweight (kg) + 70 These formulae better estimate the needs of smaller and larger patients. The flat 3ml/kg/hr underestimates for small patients and overestimates for larger patients. This maintenance rate is in addition to rehydration rates. So what sort of fluid should you use for maintenance? True “maintenance” crystalloids: used to replace ongoing fluid and electrolyte […]
October 20, 2019

GDV Diagnosis: All Hands on Deck

Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a true veterinary emergency and while it can be daunting to be presented with a sick dog with suspected GDV, the most important thing to remember is this patient will succumb to this condition without your intervention. First, a little pathophysiology: GDV is a broad term that can refer to gastric dilation on its own, gastric dilation with volvulus, and even chronic gastric volvulus. These conditions usually present in large or giant breeds and we still know little about the underlying causes. Once dilation and volvulus occurs, perfusion to the stomach and other abdominal organs is […]
September 13, 2019

Dystocia Part 2 – Surgical or Medical Management

Part two of this series will cover when medical management is suitable or when surgical intervention is required. To start with, a few things indicate an immediate caesarean section is required: Signs of fetal distress (for example, bradycardia) Maternal exhaustion and more than four fetuses remaining Systemically unwell bitch/queen Fetal obstruction of the vaginal vault that is unmovable Excessive bleeding Half an hour of intense contractions without delivering a neonate Radiographic evidence of a disproportionately large fetus or abnormal position MEDICAL MANAGEMENT Generally, successful medical therapy is dependent on positive feathering response. Oxytocin therapy If strong contractions are occurring, oxytocin […]
August 16, 2019

Dystocia Part 1 – Labour Stages & Diagnostics

Now most female canine patients are spayed; it comes as no surprise reproductive emergencies are not as common. One area of confusion seems to be not knowing how to determine a true dystocia emergency from the process of normal partuirition, especially when having discussion over the phone with an owner who’s pet is going through the process. Another concern is what diagnostic pathway to follow to determine the cause of dystocia, especially for reasons other than obvious physical abnormalities (for example, fetopelvic disparity and fetal malposition). Often, once we decide to go down the medical treatment pathway, whether the result […]
August 6, 2019

Abdominal Radiography – Tips For Image Interpretation

Abdominal radiographs can be daunting, but here are six tips to help you get the most information from your studies and some tips on interpreting those images. Patient preparation Have the patient prepared as best as possible, have them dry as wet hair shows up on x-rays and appropriately sedated, or anaesthetised if needed, to minimise the amount of radiation exposure to you and your staff. 2.  Adjust according to depth Adjust the settings based on the depth. The cranial abdomen is often wider and deeper than the caudal abdomen, so adjust the settings as appropriate. This will help make sure the […]
October 25, 2018

Perfusion Deficits and Fluid Resuscitation: A More In-depth Look

Previously we discussed the four basic components of a fluid therapy plan – perfusion deficit, hydration deficit, maintenance requirements and ongoing losses. Let’s consider perfusion deficits. As an emergency clinician, correcting perfusion deficits is a crucial part of stabilising a patient. So what is a perfusion deficit? It either refers to a real or relative loss of intravascular fluid volume, or low blood pressure, leading to a decrease in perfusion of tissues and, ultimately, decreased oxygen delivery – ie, shock. What does this look like clinically?                 Clinical signs of perfusion deficits include: pale gums […]
June 20, 2018

Five Things I Wish I Could Tell Myself When Starting Uni

We all sometimes wish we could go back in time or have a do-over on some situations, University is such an important time in our lives, and often when we look back with hindsight and more life experience we wish we could have done things a little differently, or perhaps focused our time and energy in a better way. I have been reflecting recently as my career has progressed, and whilst I am incredibly proud of what I have achieved and where my journey has bought me, if I could say 5 things to the Gerardo Poli about start University, […]
January 31, 2018

Intoxications: Phone Conversations Part 2

Building on from last week’s blog on telephone advise, this is what I advise that owners can do at home if they have been exposed to a toxin. The main routes of exposure are ocular, dermal and gastrointestinal. Ocular Acids and alkalis cause the most severe effects as they can cause ongoing damage sometime after initial contact. Eye irrigation (avoid contact lens solution as this can cause further irritation) Tepid water, saline or distilled water 20 to 30 minutes (ideally) Rinse from medial to lateral to avoid contamination of the other eye Once the eye(s) have been flushed, then recommend […]
January 25, 2018

Intoxications: Phone Conversations

We frequently field phone calls from owners who are concerned about their pets being intoxicated or having access to a toxic compound. These are the list of questions I ask always owners: What is your pet doing? The main reason I ask this question first is to determine if the pets life is in danger. If the pet is seizing, collapsed, neurological, bleeding or having difficulty breathing then they need to come down immediately. What lead to the suspicion of toxic exposure? This can help provide useful background information. What is the product? In some situations owners can tell you […]